We systematically reviewed of all definition of gossip in the scientific literature. First, we define gossip as a sender communicating to a receiver about a target, who is absent or unaware of the content. Second, we propose an integrative to study gossip as varying in valence and formality.

Large experience sampling study showing people use gossip in daily life gossip efficiently impact and update reputations in a way that enables partner selection and indirect reciprocity.

Disgust (but not anger) was related to indirect aggression whereas anger (but not disgust) was related to direct aggression, and disgust was higher toward other-targeting violations whereas anger was higher toward self-targeting violations.

Two studies indicate gossip has positive and negative aspects for cooperation in groups, these aspects depend on situational factors and agent perspectives.

The Motives to Gossip Questionnaire was extended with an emotion venting scale. The five factor structure was supported and fully invariant across gossip definitions.

The presence of an observing others curbs unethical behavior, while mere presence of an (unobserving other does not. The influence of an observing other is not qualified by payoff structure or social proximity.